Understand the Basics of Air Conditioning Systems

Do you want to keep control of the temperature and humidity in your home? Air conditioning units are an effective way to accomplish this. In this blog post, we’ll discuss the basics of air conditioning systems so that you can make an informed decision on whether or not you need one in your home. From the refrigeration process to different types of air conditioners, learn all about them here! Read on to find out more!

How Air Conditioning Systems Work

Air conditioning systems use refrigeration to cool the air, with the help of refrigerant and a range of components.

Refrigeration Process

The refrigeration process is the basis of air conditioning systems. It involves introducing cool air into a confined space and removing heat to reduce the temperature. Refrigerant, a chemical, absorbs the warmth and dissipates it outside as hot air via condensing coils. As this happens, the pressure within the system increases; thus enabling uncomfortable temperatures to be reduced inside any enclosed area.

The compressors used in this process help to cycle refrigerant back into its liquid form, while the evaporator coil aids with absorbing the resulting warmth and releasing cooled air indoors. Refrigerants also play an important role here by cooling and dehumidifying warm air when it passes through them during circulation around an AC system’s components. Consequently, this helps regulate temperature levels inside buildings or homes effectively without wasting energy resources for maximum efficiency.


Refrigerant is a compound used in air conditioning systems to facilitate the process of heat transfer. It is usually liquid and circulates through an AC unit, absorbing heat from the indoor environment before being compressed by the compressor and expelled outside.

Refrigerants can also undergo a phase change, allowing them to absorb even more energy from the surrounding environment for greater cooling or heating capacity.

Components Of An AC System

An air conditioning system typically consists of five primary components: the compressor, condenser, expansion valve/capillary tube, evaporator coil and a refrigerant line. The compressor compresses the refrigerant and circulates it to other parts of the AC system.

The condenser then cools down and liquefies the high-temperature gas from the compressor into liquid form. After that, an expansion valve or capillary tube is used to reduce pressure on the liquid refrigerant so it can revert into vapour in its low-pressure state at a lower temperature.

Furthermore, this vapour enters evaporator coils where heat energy is absorbed through fins which causes them to cool down before being released as cooled air into your living space. Lastly, refrigerant lines help bring cold airflow back to evaporator coils while removing hot gases away from them.

Parts Of An Air Conditioner

The evaporator coil, compressor, condenser, expansion valve/capillary tube, refrigerant lines and adjustable louvres are all components of an air conditioner.

Evaporator Coil

The evaporator coil is an important component of the air conditioning system. It is located in the indoor unit and features a series of tubes designed to absorb heat inside the room. This allows cooler air to be released back into circulation, thus creating a comfortable environment.

An outer covering protects it called a condensate pan that collects moisture from the warm air passing over it as it cools before being distributed through your vents. The collected water then runs out of the bottom of the pan and down either directly or through drain lines outside your home.


The compressor is the driving force of an air conditioning system. It compresses and pressurizes the refrigerant to make it hot, so it still has a low density, even at high temperatures.

The compressed gas then moves to the condenser, which cools and returns to liquid form with higher pressure. This liquid is then taken back through tubes for cooling by evaporating off heat into the room.


The condenser is one of the most vital components of an air conditioning system. It collects hot gasses released from the evaporator coil and converts them into liquid form. This process is done through condensation, where the heat from these gasses dissipates, causing a change in state from gas to liquid.

The hot, pressurized gasses released from the evaporator coil enter the condenser. They are converted back into a liquid form at higher pressure as it travels through several coils known as “fins”. These fins help dissipate heat as this process occurs, releasing warm air outdoors. The condensed refrigerant then passes through an expansion valve, or capillary tube, that reduces pressure before entering another part of the AC system called an evaporator coil.

Expansion Valve/Capillary Tube

The Expansion Valve or Capillary Tube is an important component of the air conditioning system. It regulates the flow of refrigerant from the high-pressure side to the low-pressure side. It works as a throttle and helps balance temperature levels within a system by allowing precise control over how much refrigerant passes through it.

The Expansion Valve/Capillary Tube has a precision design that ensures that only enough liquid enters the evaporator coil to match its capacity, preventing flooding and ensuring even temperatures throughout all rooms in a home are maintained. It also helps maintain the consistent performance of the AC system, increases its energy efficiency, extends equipment life and makes it more cost-effective over time.

Refrigerant Lines

Refrigerant lines are copper pipes that carry and circulate the refrigerant between the indoor and outdoor units in a split air conditioner. The refrigerant absorbs heat from indoors and transfers it to outside during cooling mode while transporting heat from outdoors to within while operating in heating mode.

Refrigerant lines also act as a conduit for electric power to operate an AC system’s valves, fans, and other components.

Adjustable Louvers

Adjustable louvres are located at the outer end of the air conditioning system. This helps to control and adjust the flow of cooled or heated air into the room. The louvres can be moved up, down, left and right to direct airflow properly.

The adjustable louvres allow for greater flexibility when regulating room temperature according to one’sone’s preferences. This feature makes air conditioning systems much more convenient and efficient. It also saves energy consumption since only a specific portion of air is conditioned as necessary instead of unnecessarily cooling/heating an entire area.

Different Types Of Air Conditioning Systems

No matter your needs, there’s sure to be an air conditioning system that fits them! Read on to learn more.

Split System

Split System air conditioners are one of the most common types used in residential homes. It comprises two components, an outdoor condenser/compressor unit and an indoor air-handling unit. The condenser is usually installed outside the house and can be connected to several indoor units. This type of system offers flexible temperature control for each area within a building, as only parts of it need to be cooled or heated at any given time.

The main advantage of the split system is its ability to cool individual rooms without cooling those areas where there is no need for it, which saves energy in the long run. Moreover, this setup provides quieter performance with minimal maintenance costs due to fewer moving parts than other systems. Some split systems also have built-in air purifiers that clean up allergens and pollutants from the atmosphere, improving indoor air quality.

Ductless Mini-Splits

Ductless mini-split systems are gaining popularity in air conditioning due to their energy efficiency. These systems provide heating and cooling without requiring ducts using an outdoor condenser unit connected with up to four indoor evaporator blowers.

Ductless mini-splits use a ”zone system” which allows users to control temperature settings in several areas of the same building while heavily reducing energy waste. Some models include extra features such as voice command technology that is becoming increasingly popular among homeowners and businesses looking for convenience when controlling room temperatures.

Packaged Units

Packaged Units are air conditioners with all the components encased in one unit. It is usually situated outside but can also be placed on the roof or anywhere else. These units take up less space than other systems, and they don’tdon’t require long ducts, making them ideal for smaller homes and buildings.

Packaged Units combine combustion and refrigeration processes to provide heating or cooling depending on the chosen mode. The condenser and compressor circuits reduce energy costs while providing superior temperature control accuracy compared to split system ACs with multiple air handlers installed throughout a building.

VRF Systems

VRF (variable refrigerant flow) systems are designed to provide air conditioning and heating for various commercial applications. These systems feature separate indoor and outdoor units, typically linked by two pipes containing the refrigerant that circulates between them. Each indoor unit is connected directly to the other outdoor unit, providing individual control over the temperature in different rooms or areas.

VRF systems have advanced technological features allowing efficient operation with low energy consumption while also providing opportunities for zoning and dehumidifying of air – which can be set up according to user preference. Their modular design allows flexibility when replacing existing HVAC equipment, while their quiet operation ensures comfort in any environment they operate in.


Air conditioning systems provide a range of benefits that make them a valuable addition to any home. They offer climate control, air purification, and moisture regulation from one system.

With different types on the market, people can select the perfect system for their needs, whether it’s a split system or mini-splits, for more convenience in individual rooms. Air conditioning systems keep your home comfortable and hygienic year-round – making them an essential part of modern living!

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